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MILKFISH FRY

January 7, 2009


Milkfish Fry (Chanos chanos) = typically 17 days old
Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus Fuscoguttatus) = 7 – 8 CM – fast grower,
very popular !

Competitive prices direct from the supplier !
Minimum order is 500 KG and we only accept prepayment prior to shipment only.

To expedite price quotation, please indicate the destination where you want the fries to be ship to your port destination

Please contact us for information at:

KAWAN ABADI AQUACULTURE
Cell/Text Msg: 62-856-3749619
Fax: 62-362-94647 email sales

WE HAD EXPERIENCED SERVE FOR LOCAL AND ABROAD

Milkfish (Chanos Chanos)

Biology

Milkfish (Chanos chanos) is the only species in the Family Chanidae and is most closely related to carps and catfishes. Milkfish lives in the warm waters along the continental shelves and around islands in the Indo-Pacific.
The adults are pelagic, schooling, migratory, large (to 1.5 m, 20 kg), and mature sexually in 5 years. Spawning takes place near coral reefs during the warms months of the year, and populations near the equator spawn year-round. The pelagic eggs (1.1-1.2 mm in diameter) and larvae (3.5 mm at hatching) stay in the plankton for two weeks. The larvae then migrate onshore and are caught by fine-mesh nets operated along sandy beaches and mangrove areas; these “fry” are 10-17 mm long and used as seedstock in grow-out ponds, pens and cages. Juveniles in the wild live in mangrove areas, coastal lagoons, and even go upriver into lakes; they go back to sea when they get too big for the nursery habitat, or when they are about to mature sexually. Juveniles and adults eat a wide variety of relatively soft and small food items, from microbial mats to detritus, epiphytes, zooplankton, and feeds.
Milkfish farming is a centuries-old industry in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. It has been slow to modernize and now faces challenges from competing aquaculture species and the present economic realities. The domestic market is large and the export market may soon expand.

Our company in Bali, Indonesia has developed broodstock and hatchery technology to reduce the rather destructive fry fishery, and to improve yields in milkfish ponds.

Broodstock management

Studies focused on the refinement of broodstock and seed production techniques to improve egg and larval production and eliminate deformities in hatchery-bred fry. Milkfish broodstock fed diets supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination or in Vitamin E had more spawns, higher egg viability, and higher survival of eggs into normal larvae.
A protocol for the transport of milkfish broodstock has been developed as well. Broodstock survive 10 hours of overland transport in sealed oxygenated plastic bags with chilled (20-24 C) and diluted (28 ppt) sea water. Sexually mature milkfish transported as such go on to spawn as expected.

Seed production

Hatchery techniques are refined continually. Rotifer ingestion and growth and survival of milkfish larvae are higher in black-painted tanks than in tan-painted tanks. A nutritionally balanced and cost-effective formulated diet for milkfish larvae is a combination of rotifers starting day 2 or day 8, and may be used as sole feed starting day 15.

Ways were sought to reduce if not eliminate deformities in hatchery-bred milkfish. Eggs transported at the eyed stage (14-20 hours after spawning) have higher viability and produced 45-day old larvae with lower incidence of deformities than eggs transported at the cleavage, blastula, or gastrula stages. Similarly, the sensitivity of milkfish embryos to mechanical shock varies during development, and the C-shaped eyed stage may be manipulated or transported with minimum risk or injury. Milkfish larvae fed rotifers and Artemia enriched with highly unsaturated fatty acid and Vitamin C had better growth and resistance to salinity stress and lower incidence of deformities.

Farming

Feeds for milkfish fry must contains about 9% lipid (cod liver or coconut oil); growth and survival of fry are higher at lower salinity. For milkfish in semi-intensive ponds, it is more cost efficient to give 24%-protein diet with balanced amino acids at a feeding rate of 4% of body weight daily, but supplemental feeding should not exceed 38 kg/ha-day to maintain good water quality.

However, a feeding rate of 4% may be wasteful and may be reduced to 2%, given that the maintenance ration of juvenile milkfish is equivalent to only 1% of body weight per day, and that feeds make up only 10-25% (detritus 60-70%, natural food 15-20%) of the intake of milkfish in ponds. Milkfish do not feed in the morning when the dissolved oxygen is low, and feeding may be timed at mid-morning once oxygen exceeds 2 ppm.
Techniques are being developed for the nursery rearing of hatchery-bred fry in floating net cages such that the system becomes as efficient as the usual practice in brackishwater ponds.

GROUPER

Full-cycle aquaculture (the use of hatchery-reared fingerlings) of many grouper species is becoming more common throughout Asia. Grouper are cultured at various scales in every country of Southeast Asia – Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. While currently making up only about 10–15 per cent of the total trade, there is an increasing supply of full-cycle, cultured fish. The most importantsource countries are Taiwan, Indonesia and Thailand. Grouper culture is also ongoing in Australia andthe People’s Republic of China, although the industry in these countries will not be discussed here.

Grouper culture is expanding in many areas of Indonesia. While there is no statistical data available on grouper culture in Indonesia, national aquaculture statistics show brackish water and cage culture growing at 8 and 16 per cent, respectively, during the 1990s. The primary areas for grouper grow-out culture in Indonesia are Aceh, north Sumatra (Nias and Sibolga), Riau Islands, Bangka Islands, Lampung, west Java,KarimunjawaIslands(centralJava), Teluk Saleh (west Nusa Tenggara), south Sulawesi, north Sulawesi and southeast Sulawesi. Grouper culture is generally characterised in Indonesia by the use of wild-caught seed and use of trash fish for feed. There is limited use of hatchery-reared seed, although this is growing.
Grouper are primarily grown-out in net cages. There is some limited pond grow-out culture, particularly for small size classes, but a general shortage of land for ponds has been identified (Sadovy 2000).

There has been a good deal of research on hatchery production of grouper. This has been stimulated by thedevelopment of a large number of milkfish hatcheries near the Gondol station and by increased interest from these private hatcheries in Bali and throughout Indonesia to produce grouper seed on a commercial basis. At the Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture on the north coast of Bali, the mass seed production of Cromileptes altivelis has been successful. Broodstock have been able to spawn naturally all year round, although the survival rates of larvae are low at the early stage. There are slow growth rate and disease problems at the grow-out stage.
Some private hatcheries have succeeded in seed production, applying technologies learned from the Gondol station. In addition, humpback grouper seed has been provided from the station to many aquaculture operations in Bali and elsewhere in Indonesia and Southeast Asia for grow-out. The Gondol station has also succeeded in full-cycle culture of E. fuscoguttatus. The spawning period for this species in the hatchery has been found to be very short, only three to four days a month, and not all year round. Survival rates are low due to high levels of cannibalism, although survival rate and growth rate in cages is high. Many of the hatcheries in Bali culture several species of fish in addition to grouper such as sea bass, milkfish and humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus).
Panther Grouper – Cromileptes Altivelis

This species is in the family of Serranidae (sea basses: groupers and
fairy basslets).

Subfamily of Cromileptes

The Panther Grouper is pale greenish brown to whittish brown, with widely-spaced, round, black spots on head. body and on all fins. Few faint blotches scattered on, and overlapping with small black spots on body.
Maturity size is 39 cm or 15.6 inches with a maximum size of 70 cm or 28 inches.
This fish prefer to live close to coral reef areas.

Occurs in Eastern
Indian Ocean. Indo-Australian islands, China Sea, islands of the Philippines,
reefs of the Western coast of Australia, Melanesia.

Tiger Grouper – Epinephelus Fuscoguttatus

This species is in the family of Serranidae (sea basses: groupers and
fairy basslets).
Subfamily of Epinephelinae.
Order of Perciformes (perch-likes).
Class of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)

The Brown Marble Grouper is light yellowish brown with large irregular-shaped dark blotches on the head, back
and sides. The head, body and fins have small dark spots. There is a dark spot on the caudal peduncle
It can reach a maximum size of 120 cm or 48 inches and maximum published weight of 11 kg or 24.2 lbs.
This marine fish prefer to live close to reef-associated surrounding with a depth range of 1 – 60 meters or 2.2-132 feet. The fish tolerate tropical water ranging from 35 degree North to 35 degree South from the Equator.

Minor commercial use in fisheries as well as commercial aquaculture. The smaller sizes are for uses in the aquarium trade. It can double in size in 1.4-4.4 years.Occurs in the Indo Pacific from the Red Sea, along the east coast of Africa to Mozambique, east to Samoa and the Phoenix Islands, north to Japan and south to Australia.



One comment

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